As defined by Burger (2008), motivation is the driving force in all human activities which is aimed at objective achievement. In other words, motivation has also been defined as the determination and zest with a type of excitement that makes one to endure and persevere in order to reach greater heights. In regard to human life, the source of the driving force (motivation) comes either from an internal source or external source. It has been noted that, motivation is dynamic and keeps altering from time to time. In this phenomenon, attainment of 1 goal provides a new drive to aim to a greater objective and the procedure continues throughout an individual's life. On the contrary, de-motivation is also evident in people's lives and may lead to excellent withdrawing and a bleak of all aspects of life. In spite of the narrowing of the topic to address humans, it be effectively utilised in describing animal behavior. With regard to the subject, different theorists have contributed extensive efforts in analyzing and discussing the concept. Primarily, the concept of motivation is related with individuals desire to maximize pleasure and minimize physical discomfort. This will expound on the concept of motivation and much more precisely identify and critically evaluate the role of internal and external variables affecting motivation (Burger 2008).
To begin with, motivation is disintegrated into two broad categories which include the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation exists inside the individual and does not rely on external pressure. In this case, the motivation is driven by enjoyment or interest in the tasks itself. Based on study carried by distinct educational and social psychologists, intrinsic motivation is in most cases associated with high academic achievement and enjoyment by learners. Fritz Heider's attribution theory has profoundly explained the concept of intrinsic motivation. Bandura's and Ryan's and Deci in the theory of self efficiency and cognitive evaluation theory respectively have adequately explained the subject of intrinsic motivation (Burger 2008).
On the other hand, extrinsic motivation refers to the driving force in individual behavior which yields from outside the individual. As depicted by Burger (2008), funds, coercion, grades, and punishment amongst other rewards are the important motivations of people. From another perspective, an concern like competition has been identified to be a key factor in motivating individuals to behave in distinct manner. With regard to the Self determination theory, people can internalize extrinsic motivation if they view the tasks matches their beliefs and values. By so performing, people are able to fulfill there primary psychological wants (Burger 2008).
In relation with intrinsic motivation, the important drive is the enjoyment or the interest in the activity becoming undertaken. There are numerous internal and external elements affecting the level of intrinsic motivation among people. For instance in the academic field, learners are very motivated by the achievements they could gain from their academic excellence. In this case, by evaluating the aspects determining the achievement of a certain job, individuals will be very motivated if they realize they are potential in handling the circumstance. In this regard, the amount of effort to be put into a specific activity or job is a key determinant of the level of motivation. For instance in educational arena, students will get motivated if they comprehend the tasks to be accomplished require less effort. Also in the professional field, the level of ease in performing a task is a important determinant of the level of motivation (Burger 2008).
On the other hand, the level of participation and the degree of utility required from an individual in performing a job determines the level of motivation. For instance, students will get more motivating in performing their tasks if they realize they are the only efficient agents in attaining their desired goals. The recognition that, results can not be attained by lick will definitely reinforce the driving force in individuals. It has further been observed that, the motivation in students is also determined by individual learners' abilities in mastering a subject. It ought to be noted that, the level of motivation is usually varied amongst people (Atkinson Et al 1996).
Several theorists have created diverse theories explaining on how different external and internal elements determines the level of motivation. To start with, the incentive theory is a crucial theory in explaining the motivational variables. In regard to this theory, a tangible or intangible reward given to an individual will substantially alter his level of motivation. Analysis and experiments carried on the theory shows that, the impact of the rewards varies with the length of time the reward is offered. For instance, if the reward is provided instantly, the level of motivation will be quite high. On the contrary, lengthening the time when the reward will be provided leads to gradual diminishing of the level of motivation (Pavlov 1927).
Furthermore, the theory also outlines that, a rein-forcer can also be an powerful factor of manipulating the individual's behavior. This factor is slightly different from reward in that it is intended to develop a measured improve in the level of desirable behavior. Fundamentally, the theory is developed on the belief that folks are always prepared to engage in behaviors which they perceive to be profitable. The theory gains a lot support from Behavioral psychologists like B.F skimmer. The idea of wanting and liking are stressed in this scenario whereby the stimulus is aimed at attracting the individual to behaving in a specific manner. It need to been noted that, stimulus is very critical in manipulating individual behavior (Burger 2008).
The need hierarchy theory created by Abram Maslow has been extremely celebrated fro its role in explaining motivational factors of individuals. With regard to the theory, human behavior is influenced by the several requirements and desires facing an individual. Based on this, the unsatisfied requirements will be a important factor in deciding how a person will behave. On the contrary, satisfied needs have no role in determining the behavior of any individual. According to Abraham Maslow, the requirements of men and women are endless and therefore people's behavior will continue to be manipulated by these wants influencing their level of motivation. Drastically, the hierarchical nature of human needs is also well depicted in the theory whereby an individual will advance to the subsequent level (Nevid 2007).