As defined by Burger (2008), motivation is the driving force in all human activities which is aimed at aim achievement. In other words, motivation has also been defined as the determination and zest with a type of excitement that makes 1 to endure and persevere in order to reach higher heights. In regard to human life, the source of the driving force (motivation) comes either from an internal source or external source. It has been noted that, motivation is dynamic and keeps altering from time to time. In this phenomenon, attainment of one objective provides a new drive to aim to a greater aim and the procedure continues throughout an individual's life. On the contrary, de-motivation is also evident in people's lives and may lead to wonderful withdrawing and a bleak of all aspects of life. In spite of the narrowing of the topic to address humans, it be effectively utilized in describing animal behavior.
With regard to the subject, several theorists have contributed extensive efforts in analyzing and discussing the idea. Primarily, the idea of motivation is related with individuals desire to maximize pleasure and reduce physical pain. This will expound on the idea of motivation and much more precisely identify and critically evaluate the role of internal and external aspects affecting motivation (Burger 2008).
To begin with, motivation is disintegrated into two broad categories which consist of the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation exists within the individual and does not rely on external pressure. In this case, the motivation is driven by enjoyment or interest in the tasks itself. Based on study carried by different educational and social psychologists, intrinsic motivation is in most situations associated with high academic achievement and enjoyment by learners. Fritz Heider's attribution theory has profoundly explained the idea of intrinsic motivation. Bandura's and Ryan's and Deci in the theory of self efficiency and cognitive evaluation theory respectively have adequately explained the subject of intrinsic motivation (Burger 2008).
On the other hand, extrinsic motivation refers to the driving force in individual behavior which yields from outside the individual. As depicted by Burger (2008), dollars, coercion, grades, and punishment amongst other rewards are the important motivations of individuals. From one more perspective, an problem like competition has been identified to be a key factor in motivating men and women to behave in distinct manner. With regard to the Self determination theory, individuals can internalize extrinsic motivation if they view the tasks matches their beliefs and values. By so doing, people are able to fulfill there primary psychological wants (Burger 2008).
In relation with intrinsic motivation, the key drive is the enjoyment or the interest in the activity being undertaken. There are different internal and external aspects affecting the level of intrinsic motivation amongst people. For instance in the academic field, learners are extremely motivated by the achievements they may acquire from their academic excellence. In this case, by evaluating the factors determining the achievement of a certain job, people will be highly motivated if they comprehend they are possible in handling the situation. In this regard, the amount of effort to be put into a particular activity or task is a key determinant of the level of motivation. For instance in educational arena, students will get motivated if they understand the tasks to be achieved need much less effort. Also in the expert field, the level of ease in performing a task is a key determinant of the level of motivation (Burger 2008).
On the other hand, the level of participation and the degree of utility necessary from an individual in performing a task determines the level of motivation. For instance, students will get a lot more motivating in performing their tasks if they understand they are the only successful agents in attaining their desired objectives. The recognition that, outcomes can not be attained by lick will definitely reinforce the driving force in people. It has further been observed that, the motivation in students is also determined by individual learners' abilities in mastering a topic. It need to be noted that, the level of motivation is constantly varied amongst people (Atkinson Et al 1996).
Many theorists have created various theories explaining on how various external and internal aspects determines the level of motivation. To begin with, the incentive theory is a essential theory in explaining the motivational variables. In regard to this theory, a tangible or intangible reward given to an individual will substantially alter his level of motivation. Research and experiments carried on the theory shows that, the impact of the rewards varies with the length of time the reward is provided. For instance, if the reward is provided quickly, the level of motivation will be extremely high. On the contrary, lengthening the time when the reward will be offered leads to gradual diminishing of the level of motivation (Pavlov 1927).
Moreover, the theory also outlines that, a rein-forcer can also be an powerful factor of manipulating the individual's behavior. This factor is slightly different from reward in that it is intended to develop a measured enhance in the level of desirable behavior. Basically, the theory is developed on the belief that individuals are constantly prepared to engage in behaviors which they perceive to be profitable. The theory gains considerably support from Behavioral psychologists like B.F skimmer. The concept of wanting and liking are stressed in this scenario whereby the stimulus is aimed at attracting the person to behaving in a certain manner. It ought to been noted that, stimulus is very crucial in manipulating individual behavior (Burger 2008).
The need to have hierarchy theory created by Abram Maslow has been very celebrated fro its role in explaining motivational aspects of people. With regard to the theory, human behavior is influenced by the different wants and desires facing an individual. Based on this, the unsatisfied requirements will be a key factor in deciding how a individual will behave. On the contrary, satisfied requirements have no role in determining the behavior of any individual. According to Abraham Maslow, the needs of people are endless and therefore people's behavior will continue to be manipulated by these wants influencing their level of motivation. Considerably, the hierarchical nature of human wants is also well depicted in the theory whereby an individual will advance to the subsequent level (Nevid 2007).
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