Motivation Theories- the Foundation to Employee Motivation
In the past, employees were not given a lot of a thought, not much more than just an additional input into the production of goods and services. Employee motivation was not the principal concern of the managers.
Nevertheless, as the time passed by the 'Hawthorne Experiment' a analysis conducted by Elton Mayo in 1924, fundamentally changed the way of thinking about the workers. the study of Elton Mayo pointed out the reality that money does not motivate staff to use their full prospective, but instead it is the employee attitudes that keeps them going and linked with behaviour. As a result, this gave rise to what is recognized as the Human Relations approach to management which lead the managers to focus mainly on the needs of staff and thus finding ways to motivate them.
Even although the managers began to concentrate on motivating workers thereafter, this was not an straightforward task to do, as understanding the workers and motivating them necessary careful consideration. If not so ever, then the time and dollars spent on motivating employees may be of no use to the organization or the employee, if the employees were motivated the wrong way.As a result, to realize the whole concept of motivation and support the managers carry out the technique, it is crucial to appear into the theories of motivation, which developed soon after the study of the Hawthorne Experiment.
The motivation theories created, as a result of the researches carried out by the theorists focusing understanding what motivated workers and how they had been motivated. Hence so, let us have a closer appear at 4 of the great motivational theories that explains what motivates staff, in order to recognize and do the greatest doable way to motivate them.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is 1 of the important theories that provide an insight to understand what fundamentally motivates workers and how it should be accomplished if the staff are to be motivated. Maslow identified five levels of requirements. They are,
Self Actualization ( level 5 - highest level)
Esteem ( level 4 )
Social belonging & adore needs ( level three)
safety ( level two )
Physiology ( level 1 - lowest level)
These five levels of needs have to be satisfied if the staff are to be motivated. In other words, it is stated that motivation is thus driven by the existence of these unsatisfied wants. Maslow pointed out the truth that, in order to motivate the workers, initial of all the lower level of needs have to be met prior to the subsequent higher level of needs. What he meant by this was that only when the lower level of wants have been satisfied the employee will be motivated to satisfy the next higher level of requirements. For example, an is at the lowest level of the hierarchy will only be motivated by a good pay well sufficient to afford his basic needs rather than safety of his function region and stability of the job etc. As a result, the hierarchy of wants theory highlights the fact that employees do differ from each and every other, and if they are to be motivated it is thus vital to appear into their wants very first and then come up with the suitable motivation tactics effectively.
The Hertzberg's two factor theory is yet another essential theory that gives the managers with a clear understanding to how the employees could be motivated. He also pointed out the reality that motivating staff are not just achievable without the presence of intrinsic factors.
According to Hertzberg, he fundamentally identified two separate groups of elements that had a robust impact on motivation. His first group of variables were the hygiene aspects which consisted of aspects such as the working conditions, top quality of supervision, salary,status,safety, organization policies, and administration. He tends to think that the hygiene factors strongly influenced feelings of dissatisfaction amongst the employees thus paving way to affect the job performance. Nevertheless, he also went into point out that the presence of these factors will not fundamentally motivate the workers as such, but rather they are necessary to have them correct in the very first place, if the organization intends to motivate the factors. The second group of aspects identified by hertzberg were the motivating factors. These included variables such as recognition,achievement, responsibility, intriguing job, growth and advancement to greater level tasks etc. Accordingly, he went into say that these elements do bring job satisfaction among workers which will ultimately lead to employee motivation.
One more theory that explained what basically motivated the staff was the Expectancy theory of Victor Vroom in 1964. In fact Vroom believed that employee effort will pave the way for job performance and thus job performance will lead to rewards. In other words, he highlighted the fact that workers tend to believe that by putting effort it will lead to a very good performance and likewise simply because of the great efficiency they will be rewarded. It is these rewards that motivate the workers. If the rewards are positive and welcoming , then clearly the workers will be motivated, or else if they turn out to be negative or not appealing then the probabilities of workers becoming de-motivated are very high indeed.
Adam's Equity theory is a motivation theory that points out the reality that the mangers ought to seek a fair balance in between the employees' inputs( effort, loyalty, difficult work, sacrifice, and so on) and their outputs ( recognition, status, salary, status etc), in order to motivate staff( Adams, 1965). He also stated that it is really crucial to make the employee really feel that he is treated fairly if the managers are to achieve positive outcomes and motivate the staff efficiently. However, if the workers tend to really feel that they have been treated unfairly meaning to say that their inputs are higher than the outputs, then they will be de-motivated.Ans this will no doubt lessen their inputs such as effort and difficult function and so on.
In conclusion, the tasks of the managers to motivate the workers are indeed not that straightforward.This is since each and every and every employee has got their quite own needs that tend to motivate them. However, the managers want to have some sort of aknowledge that will aid them to comprehend the employees nicely and feel of much better approaches of motivating them. This is where the motivational theories come into considertaion. It is these theories that present an explanation of how to motivate them based on what motivates them. The Hierarchy of wants theory and Hertzberg's two factor theory deals with explaining how the workers are to be motivated by way of looking into their needs. On the other hand, Adams theory also helps the managers to comprehend that a fair balance between inputs and outputs of employees are crucial. The Expectancy theory too shows that rewards tend to motivate the staff. Even so, overall all motivation theories do state that rewarding and recognising workers are important in order to motivate employees thus acting as the foundation to motivate workers.
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