Leadership & Human Behavior
Leadership & Human Behavior
As a leader, you require to interact with your followers, peers, seniors, and other people, whose support you require in order to accomplish your objectives. To gain their support, you should be able to understand and motivate them. To comprehend and motivate people, you need to know human nature. Human nature is the common qualities of all human beings. People behave according to specific principles of human nature.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Demands
Human demands are an critical part of human nature. values , beliefs , and customs differ from country to country and group to group, but all individuals have comparable demands. As a leader you must realize these demands since they are powerful motivators.
Abraham Maslow felt that human needs had been arranged in a hierarchical order (Maslow,1954). He based his theory on healthy, creative people who employed all their talents, prospective, and capabilities. At the time, this methodology differed from most other psychological study in that it was based on observing disturbed folks.
There are two significant groups of human wants: fundamental demands and meta wants.
Standard needs are physiological, such as food, water, and sleep and psychological, such as affection, security, and self-esteem. These simple needs are also referred to as deficiency demands because if they are not met by an individual, then that person will strive to make up the deficiency.
The greater wants are known as meta wants or becoming wants (growth demands). These include justice, goodness, beauty, order, unity, etc. Fundamental requirements usually take priority more than growth demands. For example, a individual who lacks food or water will not commonly attend to justice or beauty needs.
These requirements are listed below in hierarchical order. The standard needs on the bottom of the list (1 to four) need to typically be met before the meta or becoming requirements above them can be met. The 4 meta demands (five to 8) can be pursued in any order, depending upon a person's desires or circumstances, as long as the fundamental demands have all been met.
aslow posited that folks want and are forever striving to meet several goals. Due to the fact the lower level requirements are a lot more immediate and urgent, then they come into play as the source and direction of a person's goal if they are not satisfied.
A require greater in the hierarchy will turn into a motive of behavior as long as the wants below it have been satisfied. Unsatisfied lower requirements will dominate unsatisfied greater needs and must be satisfied before the person can climb up the hierarchy.
Knowing where a individual is situated on this scale aids in determining an efficient motivator. For example, motivating a middle-class person (who is in range four of the hierarchy) with a certificate will have a far greater impact than making use of the very same motivator to impact a minimum wage person from the ghetto who is desperately struggling to meet the first couple of needs.
It really should be noted that almost no 1 stays in one particular hierarchy for an extended period. We consistently strive to move up, whilst at the exact same time different forces outside our manage attempt to push us down. Those on best get pushed down for brief time periods, i.e., death of a loved-one or an notion that does not work, whilst those on the bottom get pushed up, i.e., come across a tiny prize. Our aim as leaders consequently is to help individuals obtain the skills and expertise that will push them up the hierarchy on a much more permanent basis. Individuals who have their basic requirements met turn into significantly better workers as they are able to concentrate on fulfilling the visions put forth to them, rather than consistently struggling to make ends meet.
Characteristics of self-actualizing men and women:
Have greater perceptions of reality and are comfy with it. Accept themselves and their own natures. Lack of artificiality. They focus on problems outside themselves and are concerned with basic issues and eternal questions. They like privacy and tend to be detached. Rely on their own development and continued growth. Appreciate the simple pleasures of life (e.g. do not take blessings for granted). Have a deep feeling of kinship with other people. Are deeply democratic and are not genuinely conscious of differences. Have strong ethical and moral standards. Are original, inventive, less constricted and fresher than others Transegoic
Transegoic implies a greater, psychic, or spiritual state of development. The trans is related to transcendence, while the ego is based on Freud's function. We go from preEGOic levels to EGOic levels to transEGOic. The EGO in all three terms are employed in the Jungian sense of consciousness as opposed to the unconscious. Ego equates with the personality.
In Maslow's model, the ultimate objective of life is self-actualization, which is virtually in no way fully attained but rather is one thing to usually strive towards. Peak experiences are temporary self-actualizations.
Maslow later theorized that this level does not stop, it goes on to self-transcendence, which carries us to the spiritual level, e.g. Gandhi, Mother Theresa, Dalai Lama, or even poets, such as Robert Frost. Maslow's self-transcendence level recognizes the human require for ethics, creativity, compassion and spirituality. Without having this spiritual or transegoic sense, we are merely animals or machines.
In addition, just as there are peak experiences for temporary self-actualizations there are also peak experiences for self-transcendence. These are our spiritual creative moments.
Although the study of Maslow's theory has undergone limited empirical scrutiny, it nonetheless remains really popular due to its simplicity and getting the start off of the movement away from a entirely behaviorist/reductionistic/mechanistic method to a a lot more humanistic one. In addition, a lot of concerns are directed at his methodology: Pick a little number of individuals that he declares self-actualizing read and speak about them and come to the conclusion about self-actualization. Nonetheless, he understood this, and believed of his perform as merely a approach of pointing the way, rather than being the final say. In addition, he hoped that others would take up the trigger and complete what he had begun.